Antipredator mechanisms of Ingerophrynus parvus (Boulenger, 1887) (Anura, Bufonidae) and Philautus vermiculatus (Boulenger, 1900) (Anura, Rhacophoridae) from northern Peninsular Malaysia

Antipredator mechanisms of Ingerophrynus parvus (Boulenger, 1887) (Anura, Bufonidae) and Philautus vermiculatus (Boulenger, 1900) (Anura, Rhacophoridae) from northern Peninsular Malaysia

Shahrudin Shahriza urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:D1EDE021-F8C4-4DA0-8560-8649DF58D8E0 An adult Ingerophrynus parvus and two specimens of Philautus vermiculatus were collected from Sungai Sedim Recreational Forest, Kedah and Bukit Larut, Perak, Peninsular Malaysia on 23 July 2017 and 18 October 2014, respectively. When approached, three types of defensive mechanisms were exhibited by I. parvus, including body inflated, death feigning, and crouching down. Philautus vermiculatus displayed crouching down, body contraction, and eye protection mechanisms. All the behaviours were recorded for the first time in their natural environment....

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